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Who was Josephine Baker?(Josephine Baker: Dancer, WWII spy and civil rights activist honoured at France’s Pantheon ) Wiki, Bio, Age,Family,Facebook,Net Worth, Instagram, Twitter & Quick Facts

Josephine Baker

Josephine Baker Wiki

                                Josephine Baker Biography

Who was Josephine Baker ?

Josephine Baker will be the first black woman to be honored by the French government with a place in the Pantheon.

Josephine Baker was an American-born French entertainer, French Resistance agent and civil rights activist. Her career was centered primarily in Europe, mostly in her adopted France. Wikipedia

President Emmanuel Macron decided that she would be buried in the Paris building, a monument to France’s national heroes and where some of her most revered historical figures are buried, in response to an important request from her.

The body of the Missouri-born cabaret dancer, World War II French spy and civil rights activist will remain in Monaco at the request of her family.

But a coffin with soil from the United States, France and Monaco, places where Baker left her mark, will be deposited inside the Pantheon monument on Tuesday.

In addition to honoring an exceptional figure in French history, the move is meant to send a message against racism and celebrate the connections between the United States and France.

But critics in France say that by focusing on an American-born figure, France continues a long tradition of condemning racism abroad without confronting it at home.

Laurent Kupferman, the author of the petition said: “She embodies, first of all, the freedom of women.”

How old was Josephine Baker ?

He was June 3, 1906, St. Louis, Missouri, United States

What did Josephine Baker die of?

April 12, 1975, University Hospitals Pitié Salpêtrière – Charles Foix, Paris, France

PARIS, April 12: Josephine Baker, the American dancer and singer who became one of the great stars of the French music hall, passed away today at the Salpetriere Hospital. She was 68 years old and she suffered a stroke on Thursday, four days after opening a new magazine celebrating 50 years of her as a cheerleader.


 Stellina Baker, Akio Bouillon, Jean-Claude Baker, MORE


 Jo Bouillon (m. 1947–1961), Jean Lion (m. 1937–1938), MORE

Escape segregation

Macron will deliver a speech and some of Baker’s relatives will read short texts written by the pioneering artist.

Baker’s name will also soon be added to the name of the Gaîté metro station next to the Bobino theater in southern Paris, where he last appeared on stage a few days before his death in 1975.

Born Freda Josephine McDonald into abject poverty in Missouri in 1906, Baker dropped out of school at age 13.

After two failed marriages, she took the name Baker from her second husband, she managed to land a spot in one of the first black musicals on Broadway in 1921.

Like many black American artists at the time, she moved to France to escape racial segregation in her home country.

The woman nicknamed the “Black Venus” took Paris by storm with her exuberant dance performances, which captured the energy of the Jazz Age.

What did Josephine Baker do to change the world?

She worked for the French Resistance during World War II and fought for civil rights in the United States during the 1950s and 1960s. By the end of her life, she had formally adopted twelve children of varying racial and ethnic backgrounds, calling them her “Rainbow Tribe.”

What did Josephine Baker do for women’s rights?

Baker refused to perform for segregated audiences in the United States and is noted for her contributions to the civil rights movement.
Josephine Baker
Nationality American (renounced) French (1937–1975)
Occupation Vedette, singer, dancer, actress, civil rights activist, French Resistance agent
Years active 1921–1975

Who was the real father of Josephine Baker?

Eddie carson
Josephine Baker / Parents

Her mother, Carrie MacDonald, was part black and part Appalachee Indian, while her father, Eddie Carson, was part black and part Spanish. Both were popular ballroom performers in the St. Louis area in the early 1900s.

Did Josephine Baker have children of her own?

Josephine Baker described how she “suffered a lot because [she] couldn’t have children of [her] own,” and how she “felt inferior because of that.” Baker’s problems began in earnest in the early 1940s, during the height of World War II.

Career and moved to France after a job opportunity

Baker was born in 1906, in St. Louis, Missouri and at the age of 19, after being divorced twice, began an acting career and moved to France after a job opportunity.

“She arrives in France in 1925, she is an emancipated woman, who takes her life in her hands, in a country that she does not even speak the language of,” Kupferman said.

She achieved immediate success on stage at the Theater des Champs-Elysees, where she appeared topless and wearing a famous banana belt.Baker performs at Madame-Ball, the first major event at the beginning of the dance season in 1963.
Her spectacle, embodying colonial-era racist stereotypes of African women, sparked both condemnation and celebration.

“She was that kind of fantasy: not the black body of an American woman, but an African woman,” said Ophélie Lachaux, spokeswoman for the Theater des Champs-Elysees.

“And that’s why they asked Josephine to dance something ‘tribal’, ‘wild’, ‘African'”.

Baker’s career took a more serious turn after that, as she learned to speak five languages ​​and toured internationally.

She became a French citizen after her 1937 marriage to industrialist Jean Lion, a Jewish man who later suffered under the anti-Semitic laws of the collaborationist Vichy regime.

In September 1939, when France and Great Britain declared war against Nazi Germany, Baker contacted the head of the French counterintelligence services.

She began working as an informant, traveling, approaching officials and sharing information hidden in her sheet music, according to French military archives.

After France’s defeat in June 1940, she refused to play for the Nazis who occupied Paris and moved to southwestern France.

She continued to work for the French Resistance, using her artistic performances as a cover for their espionage activities.

After the defeat of the Nazis, she went to Germany to sing for former prisoners and deportees released from the camps.

Baker became involved in anti-racist politics

“Baker’s involvement in politics was individual and atypical,” said Benetta Jules-Rosette, a leading scholar on Baker’s life and a sociology professor at the University of California, San Diego.

After the war, Baker became involved in anti-racist politics. She fought American segregation during a 1951 acting tour of the United States, prompting the FBI to attack her, label her a communist, and expel her from her homeland for a decade.

Back in France, she adopted 12 children from around the world, creating a “rainbow tribe” to embody her ideal of “universal brotherhood”.

“My mother saw the success of the rainbow tribe, because when we caused trouble when we were children, she would never know who did it because we never gave ourselves away, risking collective punishment,” said one of Baker’s sons, Brian Bouillon Baker. . .

“I heard her say to some friends, ‘I’m angry that I never know who causes trouble, but I’m happy and proud that my children are together.’

While Baker is widely appreciated in France, some critics of Macron question why he chose an American-born figure as the first black woman in the Pantheon, rather than someone who stood up against racism and colonialism in her own right. France.

The Pantheon, built in the late 18th century, pays tribute to 72 men and five women, including Baker. She joins two other black figures at the mausoleum: the first black colonial governor in French Africa, Felix Eboué, and the famous writer Alexandre Dumas, author of The Three Musketeers, The Count of Monte Cristo, and The Man in the Iron Mask.

“These are people who have made a commitment, especially to each other,” said Pantheon Administrator David Medec.

“It is not just about excellence in a field of competence, it is really a question of commitment, commitment to others.”

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